Types of Drums

Types of Drums: A Guide of Drums From Around the World

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Drumming is a language not discriminated by borders. There are hundreds, if not thousands of different drums and percussion instruments in the world today. In fact, percussion and drums are believed to be some of the oldest musical instruments in the world.

Naming a list off the top of your head will only scratch the surface of the vast collection mankind has devised. Today’s post features a brief overview of the many different types of drums and their respective applications.

Kwarastatedrummers
Yoruba drummers playing an omele ako, bata, and a dun dun.

For a novice drummer and percussionist, one might believe that the drum set, and the drums therein, are the only main drums around in the world today. While playing the drum set may be the most popular form of drumming in the West, there are so many more instruments one must explore as a percussionist.

Drums in Popular Music

For most in the West, common percussion for the early and latter parts of the 20th century includes the snare drum, bass drum, timpani, triangle, chimes, xylophone, and many more that we will detail below.

These are instruments that are typically heard in an orchestra, but before diving into orchestral percussion, we must take a look at what might be the most common configuration of drums in the world.

Acoustic Drum Set

Keith Moon Drumming
Keith Moon playing drums in 1974 with The Who

The drum set is also a major component of Western popular music, originating from Dixieland in the 1920s. A drum set typically consists of a bass drum, snare drum, tom drums, cymbals, and a hi-hat. While we have a pretty standard idea of what a drum set looks like today, during its developmental stage, things were a bit different.

Keith Moon’s setup with The Who is a bit more complex than your standard five-piece drum setup. In the image above you can see many different sized concert tom drums, cymbals, and even a large gong. Let’s take a look at all the pieces that make up a standard kit.

Drum Set Parts

1) Bass Drum

In the above diagram, note the large drum in the middle that sits perpendicular to all the other drums. This drum is known as the bass drum. In this setup, a pedal with a beater is used to produce sound. The bass drum encompasses a low-end tone that provides the “bottom” of the beat. When you hear music on a set of speakers, this is the drum you can feel in your chest that provides the pump and bass frequencies.

In a very simple rock drum groove, the bass drum is played on beats one and three. If you’re new to reading music, stay tuned as we will be posting an informative guide on how to read drum notation.

Simple Rock Groove

2) Floor Tom

The floor tom is generally the second largest piece of the drum kit and is at least 14″ inches in diameter and depth (though there can always be exceptions to the rule). Being a member of the tom family, the floor tom is used for drum fills as well as grooves. Due to its size, the characteristics of this drum are deep in tone and large-sounding in nature. Many drummers today rely on this drum exclusively as their only tom.

3) Snare Drum

The snare drum arguably is the most common drum in Western music. Featured in orchestras, wind ensembles, drum kits in varying genres, as well as marching bands, the snare drum is a medium sized drum that utilizes wire snares (either nylon or steel) fastened to the bottom head of the drum.

2006-07-06 snare 14

When played, the wire snares give the drum a snappy sound that provides a tight, high-end tone that cuts through many instruments on stage. The snare drum is the backbone of a groove, typically played on beats two and four in Western popular music.

4) Rack Tom(s)

Generally located above the snare drum, the rack toms are smaller drums mainly used for fills. Rack toms are usually between 8 inches and 13 inches, though there are many exceptions. Rack toms have two drum heads, a batter, and a resonant head. Similar to rack toms are concert toms. These drums have a single top head with no resonant head. Concert toms were much more popular in the 1980s when larger drum sets we’re the thing.

5) The Hi-hat

One standard piece of the modern drum set is the hi-hat. This piece consists of two smaller cymbals that are controlled by a foot-operated pedal. The top cymbal is attached to a rod that moves up and down depending if the foot pedal is depressed or released. These cymbals are absolutely essential to modern rock music.

6) Crash Cymbal

A crash cymbal is a type of cymbal used in a drum set. It is usually made of brass or bronze and is used to produce a crashing sound. Crash cymbals are often used to accentuate the rhythm of a song or provide sound effects.

They come in various sizes, and the smaller ones are typically used for high-pitched sounds, while the larger ones are used for lower-pitched sounds. crash cymbals can be played with a drumstick or with your hands.

Some drummers use two crash cymbals, one on each side of the drum set, while others use only one. Crash cymbals are an essential part of any drummer’s kit, and they can add a lot of excitement to a performance.

7) Ride Cymbal

The ride cymbal is a vital part of the drum set, and it’s essential for any drummer looking to create a well-rounded sound. The ride cymbal is typically larger than the other cymbals in the set, and it’s usually placed on the right side of the drummer.

The ride cymbal is struck with a drumstick, and it produces a consistent, sustained sound. This makes it ideal for keeping time and providing a steady beat.

The ride cymbal is also often used for accents and fills, and it can be played at various dynamics. As a result, the ride cymbal is an extremely versatile tool that every drummer should master.

8) Splash Cymbal

A splash cymbal is a type of cymbal that is used as an accent in a drum set. It is usually the highest-pitched cymbal in the set, and it has a very quick, sharp sound.

Splash cymbals are often used to add interest and variety to a drum beat, and they can be used to accentuate other drums in the set. When played correctly, splash cymbals can add a great deal of energy and excitement to a drum performance.

9) China Cymbal

China cymbals are a type of accent cymbal used in drum sets. They are named for their country of origin, China. China cymbals are typically made from bronze and have a flat, wide shape. They are known for their bright, trashy sound and are often used to add color and texture to a drumbeat.

China cymbals can be played with sticks, mallets, or brushes, and are often used in jazz and rock music. While China cymbals vary in size and shape, they all share the same distinct sound that makes them an essential part of any drummer’s toolkit.

Electronic Drums

Electronic drums are, quite simply, electronic versions of traditional acoustic drums. They typically consist of a pad that produces a sound when it is struck, and a trigger that sends a signal to the electronic drum module when it is activated.

Electronic drums are often used in place of acoustic drums for their convenience and portability, as well as their ability to produce a wider range of sounds. Electronic drums are also popular with beginner drummers because they can be less expensive than acoustic drums and they are often quieter, making them ideal for practice.

Whether you’re a seasoned drummer looking for a new challenge or a beginner just getting started, electronic drums can provide endless possibilities for exploration and expression.

Drum Pads

If you’ve ever been to a rock concert, you’ve probably seen a drummer playing an electronic drum pad. These devices are played with sticks and consist of a number of zones that trigger different sounds. While electronic drum pads have been around for decades, they’ve only recently become popular with mainstream audiences.

Thanks to the advent of digital technology, electronic drums pads now offer realistic sound quality and a variety of features that appeal to both amateur and professional musicians. Whether you’re looking for a simple way to practice your drumming skills or you want to add some electronic flair to your live performances, an electronic drum pad is a great option.

Orchestral Percussion

For all the symphony lovers out there, here’s your section of instruments.

Timpani

Ah, the timpani. These large drums are often considered the heart of the orchestra, and with good reason. Timpani provide a wide range of sounds, from deep, resonant tones to sharp, cutting accents. They can be used to create a sense of tension or drama, or to provide a solid foundation for the rest of the orchestra.

In short, timpani are an essential part of any symphony or concerto. So next time you’re at a classical music concert, take a moment to appreciate the timpani – and the skilled musicians who play them.

Concert Bass Drum

Concert bass drums have been around for hundreds of years, and they continue to be an important part of many orchestras today. Also known as “orchestral bass drums”, these huge drums are usually played with a mallet, and they provide a deep, resonant sound that helps to fill out the lower end of the musical range. concert bass drums are generally made from hardwoods like maple or birch, and they typically measure between 28 and 32 inches in diameter.

In addition to their use in orchestral settings, concert bass drums are also often used in marching bands and drum corps. marching bands, concert bass drums provide a sense of power and excitement, and they help to keep the rhythm of the band moving forward. In drum corps, concert bass drums are used to create loud, dramatic effects. No matter how they’re being used, concert bass drums always add a unique level of depth and richness to any musical performance.

Marching Percussion

Marching percussion is essential out on the field during half time at the game. Let’s dive into the family of different instruments.

Marching Snare Drum

A marching snare drum is a type of drum that is typically used in marching bands. It is typically larger than a regular snare drum and has a higher pitch due to the use of a kevlar drum head. Marching snare drums are usually played with marching bass drums, which provide the marching band with a steady beat.

The marching snare drum provides the band with accents and helps to keep the tempo. Marching snare drums are typically made of wood or metal. They are also equipped with snares, which are strips of wire that vibrate when the drum is struck, creating a unique sound. Marching snare drums are an essential part of any marching band and add excitement and energy to the music.

Marching Tenors

Marching tenor drums are heavy drums that typically consist of four to six drums. Tenors are common in DCI bands. Marching tenor drums are usually made of wood or metal. The marching tenor drum is used to provide the rhythmic foundation for the band.

Marching Bass Drum

The marching bass drum is an essential part of any marching band. It provides the rhythmic foundation for the band, and its unique sound can be heard over long distances. marching bass drums are typically made of wood, and they have a deep, resonant sound.

They are also large drums, with a diameter of 18-24 inches. This makes them heavier than other types of drums, and they require two people to carry them. Marching bass drums are played with a stick called a beater, which has a thick head made of felt or plastic. The marching bass drum is a versatile instrument, and it can be used for both marching and concert performances.

South American Drums

South American hand drums come in all shapes and sizes, from the large Surdo drum used in Brazilian Samba bands to the small Cajon drum originating in Peru. But they all have one thing in common: they provide the heartbeat of South American music.

Whether it’s the driving rhythms of Cuban son or the fast-paced beats of Colombian cumbia, hand drums are essential for creating the unique sound of South American music. And thanks to their portability, they can be enjoyed anywhere, whether at a street festival or in your own living room.

Congas

The conga is a type of drum that is often associated with Latin American music. It is played with the hands, and it has a distinctive, driving rhythm. The conga can be traced back to Africa, where it was originally used as a ceremonial drum.

It was brought to the Americas by slaves, and it soon became an integral part of Afro-Cuban culture. Today, the conga is used in a wide variety of music genres, and it continues to be a popular instrument among drummers.

Bongos

Bongos are a type of drum that originated in Cuba. They are typically made from two slightly different-sized drums connected by a bridge, with each drum having its own set of skin heads. The bongos are played by striking the heads with the hands, usually in alternating fashion.

The bongos first gained popularity outside of Cuba in the 1930s, thanks to their inclusion in the music of artists like Xavier Cugat and Desi Arnaz. In the decades since, they have become a staple of Latin American music and have been used in a wide variety of genres, including jazz, rock, and pop. Bongos are also frequently used as soloing instruments, providing a unique percussive sound that can add plenty of flavor to any musical performance.

Cajon

The cajon drum is a percussion instrument that originates from Peru. It is typically made out of wood, and it has a hollowed-out body with a front face that is covered with skin. The cajon drum is played by sitting on it and striking the front face with the hands.

The cajon drum has a wide range of sounds that can be produced, depending on how it is played. For example, a soft stroke with the hand will produce a low sound, while a hard stroke will produce a high sound. The cajon drum can be used to play many different styles of music, including Latin, rock, and jazz.

Timbales

Ah, the timbale. A classic musical instrument that has been around for centuries. But what exactly is a timbale? And what is a timbale drum?

A timbale is a small drum that is played with sticks. It is typically made of wood or metal, and it has a cylindrical shape. The timbale drum is a type of timbale that is slightly larger than the traditional timbale. It is typically made of metal, and it has a conical shape. Both types of timbales are used in various genres of music, including salsa, merengue, and Latin jazz.

Timbales are often used as part of a drum set, and they can be played either solo or in ensemble. When played solo, timbales typically provide the rhythm section for the band. When played in ensemble, timbales often play off each other, creating a complex and dynamic sound. Whether played solo or in ensemble, timbales are sure to add spice to any musical performance!

Pandeiro

A pandeiro is a Brazilian percussion instrument that looks a bit like a small drum. It is usually played with the hands, and has a distinctive sound that is often used in Samba music. The pandeiro is thought to have originated in Africa, and was brought to Brazil by slaves.

Today, it is one of the most popular instruments in Brazilian music, and is widely used in both traditional and contemporary styles. If you’re looking to add a bit of Brazilian flair to your music, then the pandeiro is definitely the instrument for you!

Tassa Drum

A tassa drum is a percussion instrument used in Trinidad and Tobago. It is traditionally made from a hollowed-out log, though modern drums may also be made from metal or plastic. The drum is played with two sticks, and its distinctive sound is created by the interplay of the sticks and the drumhead.

Tassa drums are used in a variety of settings, including folk music, calypso, and soca. They are also popular at carnivals and other celebrations. Though they are commonly associated with Trinidad and Tobago, tassa drums can be found in other parts of the Caribbean as well.

Middle-Eastern Drums

Drums have been used in the Middle East for centuries, both for music and for communication. Today, they continue to play an important role in the region’s music and culture. There are many different types of drums used in the Middle East, each with its own unique sound.

Bendir

A bendir is a type of frame drum that is native to North Africa and the Middle East. It is constructed from a circular wood frame with Animal skin stretched across one side. The other side of the instrument is open, allowing the player to produce a range of different sounds by striking the skin with their hands or a mallet. The bendir is often used as an accompaniment to traditional dances and ceremonies, and its distinctive sound can be heard in a variety of popular music styles.

Darburka

A Darbuka is a type of percussion instrument used in many different styles of music, from traditional Arabic music to modern pop and rock. It most commonly consists of a large, open-ended drum with two skins stretched over the top. The performer strikes the skin with their hands or sticks, resulting in a rich, resonant sound.

The Darbuka can also be played with various techniques, such as rollers and flams, to produce different effects. While it is often used as a solo instrument, the Darbuka also works well in an ensemble setting, providing a powerful rhythmic foundation for other instruments. Whether you are a seasoned musician or a complete beginner, the Darbuka is a great choice for anyone interested in exploring the world of percussion.

African Drums

African drums are a popular choice for many music lovers. They are known for their unique sound and ability to produce a wide range of tones. Whether you are looking for a deep, low sound or a high-pitched, sharp sound, African drums can provide it. They are also very versatile, able to be used for both rhythm and melody. In addition, African drums come in a variety of sizes, making it easy to find one that is perfect for your needs.

Djembe

A Djembe is a type of drum that is native to the countries of Senegal, Mali, Guinea, and the Ivory Coast. It is usually made from a single piece of wood, and its circular shape gives it a distinctive appearance. The Djembe has a rich history, and it was traditionally used as a means of communication. In recent years, however, the Djembe has become increasingly popular as a musical instrument.

Its unique sound has made it a favorite among percussionists, and its versatility has allowed it to be used in a variety of genres. Whether you’re looking for a traditional drumming experience or something a little more modern, the Djembe is an ideal choice.

Dundun (Talking Drum)

The talking drum, also known as the dundun, is a type of drum that is commonly used in West Africa. The drum is usually played with two sticks, and the player uses one stick to strike the drumhead while the other stick is used to produce a variety of different sounds by hitting the side of the drum.

The talking drum is often used to communicate over long distances, as the different sounds produced by the drum can mimic the tones and rhythms of speech. In addition, the talking drum can be used to convey emotion and create a sense of beat and meter in music. As such, it is an essential instrument in many traditional African musical styles.

Bata

A bata drum is a type of percussion instrument made from two connected drums of different sizes. The smaller drum, called the itotele, is worn around the waist, while the larger drum, called the iya, is held in the hand.

Bata drums are traditionally used in Cuban music, and they are often used in ensembles of three or more drums. The distinct sound of the bata drums is created by striking the iyas with sticks while simultaneously rubbing the itoteles with spiral-shaped rods.

The bata drums are said to represent the two heartbeats of a mother and child, and they are believed to have magical properties. Legend has it that the bata drums were once used to summon spirits, and they are still used in religious ceremonies today. Whether you believe in their magical powers or not, there’s no denying that the bata drums add an exciting and unique flavor to Cuban music.

Bougarabou

A Bougarabou is a large, African drum that is traditionally used to provide the beat for dancing. It is usually made out of a hollowed-out tree trunk, and can measure up to six feet in length. The drum is typically decorated with colorful cloth and beads, and is played with two sticks.

The sound of the Bougarabou is said to be very powerful, and it can be heard from a great distance away. dancers often use the drum to create a hypnotic rhythm that they can follow as they move. The Bougarabou is an integral part of many African cultures, and is known for its ability to bring people together.

European Drums

European drums are distinctly different from their African counterparts. For one, they’re usually much smaller. This makes them easier to transport and store, which was a major advantage for early European settlers.

But don’t let their size fool you – European drums can pack a punch. They’re also known for their high-pitched sound, which can cut through the din of battle or party. So whether you’re looking to make some noise or just wanting to add a bit of flavor to your music, European drums are a great option.

Bodhran

A bodhran is a traditional Irish drum that is often used in folk music. It is usually made of wood or hide, and it has a distinctive, hollow sound. The bodhran is played with a stick or beater, and it can be used to keep time or to provide a rhythm for dances.

Bodhrans come in various sizes, and they are often decorated with Celtic designs. While the bodhran is most commonly associated with Ireland, it is also popular in other parts of the world, including Scotland, England, and the United States.

Tabor

A Tabor is a type of drum that is often used in marching bands. It is a relatively small drum, and it is usually played with one hand. The other hand is used to hold a stick, which is used to strike the drumhead. The sound of the Tabor is very distinctive, and it can be quite loud. When played in a marching band, the Tabor helps to set the tempo and keep the band moving forward.

It is also often used in folk music, and it can add a lot of energy to a performance. If you’ve ever heard a marching band or folk group playing, chances are you’ve heard a Tabor being played. So next time you hear one, you’ll know exactly what it is.

Batih

A Batih drum is a traditional African drum that is made out of a hollowed-out tree trunk. The tree trunk is usually fitted with a skin, which is then tightened with ropes or cords. The drum is played with sticks, and the sound it produces is said to be similar to that of a heartbeat.

Batih drums are typically used for ceremonial purposes, such as in weddings or funerals. They are also sometimes used in healing rituals.

Indian Drums

Indian drums are some of the most versatile instruments in the world. They can be used for everything from traditional ceremonies to contemporary pop music. There are many different types of Indian drums, each with its own unique sound.

The most common type of Indian drum is the tabla, which is a pair of small drums played with the hands. Other popular types of Indian drums include the dholak, the mridangam, and the kanjira. No matter what type of music you’re playing, there’s an Indian drum that’s perfect for it.

Tabla

The tabla is a popular percussion instrument used in Hindustani classical music and ghazals. It consists of a pair of small drums, which are played with the hands. The right-hand drum, known as the dayan or bayan, is larger and lower-pitched, while the left-hand drum, known as the tabla, is smaller and higher-pitched. The tabla is traditionally made from teak wood, camel skin, and goat hair.

The dayan is played with the right hand, while the tabla is played with the left hand. The player uses a variety of strokes to produce different sounds, which are then combined to create complex rhythms. The tabla is an essential part of Hindustani classical music, and it has also gained popularity in Western pop and jazz music.

Mridangam

The Mridangam is a percussion instrument from India that has been used for centuries in classical Carnatic music. Also known as the “South Indian drum”, it is one of the most important instruments in the Carnatic repertoire. The Mridangam is traditionally made from jackwood, and consists of two drums – the right drum (the smaller of the two), and the left drum (the larger of the two). The right drum is tuned to a high pitch, while the left drum is tuned to a lower pitch. Together, these two drums create a distinctive sound that is essential to Carnatic music.

The Mridangam is played with both hands, using a variety of specialized strokes. The most common stroke is known as the “thumb stroke”, which is produced by striking the edge of the drum with the thumb. This stroke produces a high-pitched sound that is essential for keeping time in Carnatic music. Other strokes include the “index stroke” (produced by striking the drum with the index finger), the “middle stroke” (produced by striking the drum with the middle finger), and the “ring stroke” (produced by striking the drum with the ring finger). These different strokes produce different sounds.

Eastern Drums

For this last section, we’ll cover drums from further east.

Taiko

A taiko drum is a Japanese drum that is often used in traditional music. Taiko drums are typically made of wood, and they have a distinct circular shape. The size of a taiko drum can vary, but they are usually large enough that two people are needed to play them.

Taiko drums are played with two wooden sticks, and they produce a deep, resonant sound. Taiko drums are used in a variety of settings, including traditional Japanese festivals and ceremonies. In recent years, taiko drums have become increasingly popular outside of Japan, and they are now used in a wide range of musical styles.

Tanggu

A Tanggu drum is a percussion instrument that originated in China. It is made from a hollowed-out tree trunk, and usually has two heads that are struck with sticks. The Tanggu drum produces a deep, resonant sound that is perfect for creating a festive atmosphere. In addition to being used in traditional Chinese music, the Tanggu drum has also been featured in Western pop songs and movies. Given its unique sound and cultural significance, the Tanggu drum is an instrument that is sure to bring joy to any gathering.

Conclusion

Drumming is one of the oldest and most primal forms of human expression. There’s something about the beat that just makes people want to move, groove, and dance. From Africa to Asia, from South America to Europe, there are all sorts of drums used in all sorts of music styles.

Did we miss your favorite instrument? Leave a comment down below and let us know. And don’t forget to share this post with your friends – the more people who appreciate percussion instruments, the better!

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